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Monument to the People's Heros

Source:www.flychinatravel.com Clicks:Date:2019-11-23 12:30

 

 

人民英雄纪念碑

 

 

The monument to the people's Heroes is located in the center of Tian'anmen Square in Beijing. On the north-south axis about 463 meters south of Tian'anmen Square and 440 meters north of Zhengyang gate, it is a monument built by the government of the people's Republic of China to commemorate the revolutionary martyrs in the modern history of China.
 
On September 30, 1949, the first plenary session of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference decided to establish a monument to the people's Heroes in Beijing, the capital, in memory of the people's heroes who died in the people's Liberation War and the people's revolution. The foundation was laid on September 30, 1949, commenced on August 1, 1952, completed on April 22, 1958, and opened on May 1, 1958. In 1961, it was announced by the State Council of the people's Republic of China as one of the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units.
 
The monument to the people's Heroes is 37.94 meters high. On the front (North) of the monument is a whole piece of granite, 14.7 meters long, 2.9 meters wide, 1 meter thick and 60.23 tons heavy. It is engraved with eight gold foil characters inscribed by Comrade Mao Zedong on June 9, 1955: "the people's heroes are immortal". The back of the stele is composed of 7 stones, and the content of the stele is 150 characters in small regular script drafted by Mao Zedong and written by Zhou Enlai.
 
Chinese Name: monument to the people's Heroes foreign name: document to the people's Heroes geographic location: Tiananmen Square, Beijing covers an area of 3000 square meters, opening time: 7:00 a.m. - 19:00 p.m. scenic spot level AAAAA ticket price: free relief of famous scenic spots, China's city of the monument, Beijing suggested to play 3 hours between designers: Liang Sicheng, Wei Changqing, Zheng Zhenduo, Wu Zuoren granite
 
Setting up the background
 
The monument to the people's Heroes is the first national public art project after the founding of new China, and the largest monument in Chinese history. It gathered a large number of China's most outstanding cultural and historical experts, architects and artists at that time, including Wei Changqing, Zheng Zhenduo, Wu Zuoren, Liang Sicheng, Liu Kaiqu, etc. From September 30, 1949, Chairman Mao laid the foundation in person. Chairman Mao's inscription was originally written on letter paper. After being magnified 20 times, it was engraved on the stone tablet. Until it was officially completed on May 1, 1958, it is the longest large-scale art project since the founding of new China.
 
The construction of the monument to the people's Heroes not only gathered the craftsmen at that time, but also gathered the stones of the steles. The monument is made of 17000 pieces of granite and white marble. The core stone of the monument, which was collected from Fushan, Qingdao, is the most important large stone in the construction of the monument. It is a very rare complete granite in the history of Chinese architecture. The stone is 14.4 meters long, 2.72 meters wide, 3 meters thick, and weighs more than 320 tons. The mining and transportation took seven and a half months. From April 1, 1953 to October 16, the large stone was transported to Tian'anmen Square At the construction site, 7116 workers participated from mining to transportation.
 
According to incomplete statistics, the cost of the monument from its foundation to its completion is more than 300 million yuan.
 
On March 4, 1961, it was announced by the State Council of the people's Republic of China as the first batch of national key cultural relics protection units, listed as revolutionary sites and revolutionary memorial buildings, with the serial number of 33.
 
Scheme formation
 
resolution
 
On September 30, 1949, the first plenary session of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference adopted a resolution to establish a monument to the people's Heroes in the capital.
 
The Beijing Municipal Commission of urban planning immediately issued a notice to all architectural design units and architectural departments of colleges and universities across the country for the planning and design of the memorial. By 1951, more than 140 design schemes and design modification schemes in various forms had been received (more than 240 schemes had been received by the time of finalization). Overseas Chinese also actively contributed their ideas. Chen Jiageng, the leader of overseas Chinese, organized overseas Chinese to draw drawings and make models of cement capitals, which cost more than 150000 yuan (old currency) to send to the Construction Engineering Office of the monument to the people's heroes.
 
On May 10, 1952, the Construction Committee of the monument to the people's heroes of the capital was officially established. The chairman of the committee was Peng Zhen, then Secretary of Beijing Municipal Committee, the deputy director was Liang Sicheng, an internationally renowned architect, and the secretary general was Xue Zizheng.
 
In order to reflect Premier Zhou Enlai's instruction that the purpose of architectural monuments is to "commemorate the dead and inspire the living", in March 1953, the capital construction committee selected 8 kinds of design schemes from more than 240 kinds and asked for opinions from professional designers. These eight design schemes include: short and scattered typical design, high and scattered typical design, three door design, rectangular main column type monument - high typical design, with the design of the observation platform, the design of the monument on the red wall, the design of the monument on the top of the monument and the final adopted monument design.
 
In many design ideas, there are great differences in design opinions.
 
divergence
 
At that time, the divergent opinions were as follows:
 
1. Do you want to build a showroom under the monument.
 
2. Whether the lower steps should be made into a review platform.
 
3. Do you want the body of the stele to be empty? Open a window on the top to look at the city of Beijing.
 
4. In the opinion, the biggest difference is the shape of the top of the stele, whether to build a rest mountain style or a group sculpture of heroes. Because these opinions are not unified, it is difficult to start the project.
 
Finally, after preliminary consultation between the central leadership in charge of this work and relevant parties, it is decided that:
 
1. The base part shall be designed according to the showroom, with room for change.
 
2. Because Tian'anmen has been used as a large review platform, the lower platform decided not to design the review platform.
 
3. For the convenience of maintenance, the tablet body is made into an empty cylinder, but the top of the cylinder does not open the observation window to maintain the solemnity and solemnity of the monument. The empty cylinder also reduces the weight of the stele, even the underground concrete

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