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Tiantan Park

Source:www.flychinatravel.com Clicks:Date:2019-11-23 12:28

 

天坛公园

 

 

Temple of Heaven, world cultural heritage, national key cultural relics protection unit, national AAAAA level scenic spot, national civilized scenic spot demonstration point.
 
Temple of heaven, in the south of Beijing, east of Yongdingmen inner street, Dongcheng District. It covers an area of 2.73 million square meters. The temple of heaven was built in 1420, the 18th year of Yongle in the Ming Dynasty. It was rebuilt in Qianlong and Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty. It is a place for emperors of Ming and Qing Dynasties to sacrifice the heaven and pray for the harvest. The temple of heaven is the general name of the two altars, the round hill and the praying valley. There are two sides of the altar wall, forming the inner and outer altar. The South and the north of the altar wall are round, symbolizing the heaven and The Place. The main building is the inner altar, the round hill altar is in the south, the prayer Valley altar is in the north, and the two altars are on the same north-south axis, with walls in the middle. The main buildings in the round hill altar are the round hill altar, the imperial dome and so on. The main buildings in the prayer Valley altar are the prayer hall, the emperor hall and the prayer gate.
 
On July 12, 2018, Tiantan Park will increase its open area by another 2.24 hectares In September 2018, the maximum daily carrying capacity of the park was reduced from 58000 to 50000.
 
Tiantan Park is located in the south of Beijing. It covers an area of 2.73 million square meters. AAAAA grade scenic spot ticket price is 15.00 yuan. The construction time of the famous scenic spot, the round dome and the imperial dome is 1420 years. Beijing belongs to the city. China suggests 3-4 hours of playing time. It's the best season in spring and autumn
 
Historical evolution
 
According to historical records, there are official activities of sacrificing heaven and earth, which can be traced back to 2000 B.C. and are still in the Xia Dynasty of slavery society. Ancient Chinese emperors called themselves "the son of heaven". They respected heaven and earth very much. The temple of heaven was built in 1420 (the 18th year of Yongle in the Ming Dynasty) in the shape of Nanjing. It was a joint sacrifice to the emperor and the earth. In the ninth year of Jiajing (1530), the emperor of Jiajing listened to the minister's words: "the ancient people worshiped the heaven in the round hill and the earth in the square hill. Round hills, the hills in the south suburb, round and high, like the sky. Square hill, a hill in the northern suburb of Zezhong, the hill side down, like the ground Therefore, it was decided that heaven and earth should be divided into two parts, one is to build a round hill in the south of the great sacrifice hall and the other is to build a Fangze altar outside the anding gate of the north city. In the 13th year of Jiajing (1534), Yuanqiu was renamed Tiantan and Fangze was renamed Ditan. After the abandonment of the Great Hall of sacrifice, it was changed into a altar for praying for grain. In the 17th year (1538) of Jiajing, the altar of praying for grain was abandoned. In the 19th year, another hall of enjoying was built on the altar, which was completed in the 24th year. In 1751, the 16th year of Qianlong's reign, the Qing Dynasty, it was renamed the hall of praying for the new year. Later, it was repaired and expanded many times.
 
In 1900, the G8 allied forces set up a headquarters in the temple of heaven, and mounted guns on the round hill. Cultural relics and sacrificial vessels were swept away, and buildings and trees were destroyed. After the founding of the people's Republic of China in 1949, the government invested a lot of money in the protection and maintenance of the cultural relics and historic sites of the temple of heaven. It has been renovated and afforested many times, making the ancient temple of heaven more magnificent. The park covers an area of 200 hectares, with one gate on each side. There are more than 25000 ancient cypresses over 200 years in the garden. There are also hundreds of flowers planted in the garden.
 
In 1961, the State Council announced the temple of heaven as a "national key cultural relics protection unit". In 1998, it was recognized as "world cultural heritage" by UNESCO. On May 8, 2007, Tiantan Park was officially approved as a national 5A tourist attraction by the National Tourism Administration.
 
On July 12, 2018, Li Gao, director of Tiantan Park, introduced that the green area of Tiantan Park will be increased by nearly 20000 square meters, and the open area for tourists will be expanded by 2.24 hectares.
 
Architectural characteristics
 
Tiantan Park
 
Temple of Heaven Park is a place where emperors of Ming and Qing Dynasties worship the heaven and pray for a good harvest every year. Temple of heaven is famous for its rigorous architectural layout, unique architectural structure and magnificent architectural decoration. Covering an area of about 2.7 million square meters, it is divided into inner altar and outer altar. The main buildings are the inner altar, the round hill altar and the imperial dome in the south, the prayer hall and the Imperial Hall in the north. The two groups of buildings are connected by the Danbi bridge, a corridor connecting the north and the south. The outer altar is surrounded by ancient cypresses, which makes the main buildings more solemn and magnificent. There are also echo walls, three tone stones, dialogue stones, etc. built by ingenious use of acoustic principles, which fully show the developed level of ancient Chinese architectural technology. Tiantan Park is the largest altar complex preserved in China.
 
The temple of heaven has two sides of altar wall, forming the inner and outer altar, both of which are round in the north and round in the south. At the beginning, in order to show the image of heaven and earth on the wall, to symbolize the saying of "heaven and earth". There are no doors on the three sides of the outer altar wall. There are only two doors on the inner street of Yongding gate in the West: the north gate is an old gate of Ming Dynasty, which is called "the gate of praying Valley altar"; the south gate was added in 1752, which is called "the gate of round hill altar". The two doors are of three arch type, and the roof of green glass is of Mount vacher type. Nowadays, the north gate and the east gate of the outer altar were added after 1975. There is also an east-west partition wall in the middle of the inner altar, which is counted as the north wall of the round hill altar. The partition wall protrudes in an arc to the north at the two axes, bypasses the outer wall of the imperial dome and connects with the inner altar wall of the East and the west, separating the two altars of Qigu and Huanqiu into two areas.
 
The surrounding hills of the inner altar are located in the South and the Qigu is located in the north. They are all on the north-south axis, and the middle part is connected by a 360m long and 30m wide Shinto (Danbi bridge). The main buildings in the round hill altar are the round hill platform (sacrificing to the heaven platform), the imperial dome (worshiping the shrine, the God Treasury and the divine kitchen, and the slaughtering animal Pavilion), etc.; the main buildings in the prayer Valley altar are the prayer gate, the big worship Hall (praying for the new year Hall), the East-West supporting hall, the emperor's hall, the long corridor (with seven star stone), the God Treasury and the divine kitchen, and the slaughtering animal Pavilion, etc.

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