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Ancient Observatory

Source:www.flychinatravel.com Clicks:Date:2019-11-23 19:53
Beijing Ancient Observatory is located in the southwest corner of Jianguomen flyover in Beijing. It was built in the orthodox period of Ming Dynasty. It is one of the oldest observatories in the world. It is famous for its complete architecture, exquisite instruments, long history and unique position in the cultural exchange between the East and the West. In the Ming Dynasty, the observatory was known as the "star watching platform". On the platform, there were large astronomical instruments such as the simple instrument, the armillary sphere and the armillary sphere. Under the platform, there were guibiao and leaky kettle. In the Qing Dynasty, the observatory was renamed "Observatory" and changed to the central observatory after the revolution of 1911. During the reign of Kangxi and Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty, eight large-scale copper astronomical instruments were successively added to the observatory, all of which adopted the European astronomical measurement system and instrument structure. They are not only practical astronomical observation tools, but also unique historical relics.
 
The observatory, built in 1442, was the National Observatory of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The Ancient Observatory is about 14 meters high, 20.4 meters long from south to North and 23.9 meters long from east to west. Eight clear astronomical instruments are set up. From the early Ming Dynasty to 1929, the Ancient Observatory has been engaged in astronomical observation for nearly 500 years. It has the longest continuous observation history among the existing ancient observatories. It is also famous internationally for its complete architecture and complete equipment. In addition to the Chinese tradition in modeling, decoration and technology, the eight bronze instruments made in Qing Dynasty also reflect the progress and achievements of large astronomical instruments after the Renaissance in Western Europe in scale, watch and structure. It is a historical witness of cultural exchanges between the East and the West. After the founding of the people's Republic of China, the ancient observatory was handed over to the Beijing Planetarium as a national key cultural relics protection unit.
 
Chinese Name: Beijing Ancient Observatory was established in 1442 A.D., the unit of national key cultural relics protection unit Beijing Planetarium, the country and city of China, admission price: 20 yuan for adults, 5 yuan for primary and secondary school students, opening time: 9:00-17:00, closed on Monday, address: No.2 Dongbi Hutong, Dongcheng District, Beijing
 
History
 
Beijing Ancient Observatory was built in 1442 A.D. (the seventh year of Ming orthodoxy). It is one of the oldest observatories in the world, and also the Royal Observatory of Ming and Qing Dynasties in China. It is famous for its complete architecture, complete equipment and long history.
 
As early as 1279 A.D. (the 16th year of the Yuan Dynasty), astronomers Wang Xun and Guo Shoujing set up a sky platform on the north side of the current Jianguomen Observatory, which became the earliest source of the Ancient Observatory in Beijing. After the establishment of the Ming Dynasty, in 1442 (the seventh year of Ming orthodoxy), a star watching platform was built on the former site of the southeast corner building of the Yuandu city wall, and astronomical instruments such as the armillary sphere, the simplified instrument and the illusion were placed, and houses such as the Ziwei hall were built under the wall, and then the sundial shadow hall was added. At this time, the observation platform and its affiliated buildings have been quite large.
 
After the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644, the observatory was changed into an observatory, and the European astronomy method was adopted to calculate the almanac. From 1669 to 1674, under the order of Emperor Kangxi, Nan Huairen designed and supervised six new astronomical instruments: equatorial theodolite, ecliptic theodolite, horizon theodolite, quadrant, chronometer and astrometer. In 1715 (the 54th year of Kangxi), Li'an designed and manufactured the horizon theodolite. In 1744 (the ninth year of Qianlong), Emperor Qianlong ordered a new instrument to be rebuilt according to the traditional Chinese armillary instrument, named Jiheng Fuchen instrument.
 
In 1900, the Allied forces of the eight powers invaded Beijing. The invaders of Germany and France once shared the eight instruments with the armillary sphere and the simplified instrument under the same platform and robbed five of them respectively. France shipped the instruments to the French Embassy in China and returned them in 1902. After the first World War, according to the Treaty of Versailles, the instruments were shipped back to China in 1921 and relocated on the observatory.
 
After the 1911 Revolution, the observatory was renamed as the central observatory. In 1927, after Zijinshan Observatory was built, the ancient observatory was no longer used for observation and research. In 1929, it was renamed as the National Astronomical exhibition hall. After the September 18th Incident in 1931, the Japanese invaders invaded Beijing. In order to protect cultural relics, 7 instruments, such as armillary sphere, Jianyi and leaky kettle, were transported to Nanjing. The seven instruments are displayed at Zijinshan Observatory and Nanjing Museum respectively.
 
After liberation, the Beijing Ancient Observatory was listed as a national key cultural relics protection unit in 1982 and reopened in 1983. Enjoy a high reputation abroad. Many heads of government, senior officials and colleagues from the scientific community, such as British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Belgian Prime Minister Vosto and so on, have come to visit.
 
Note: source of business card pictures and Atlas
 
exhibition
 
The ancient Chinese astronomical instruments displayed in the Beijing Ancient Observatory are: the original copper armillary sphere (Replica) of the Ming Dynasty, the 1:3 copper simplified instrument (Replica) of the Yuan Dynasty, and the original copper system scheme (Replica) of the Yuan Dynasty. There are sundials, guibiao and other ancient timekeeping instruments in the backyard.
 
Time calendar
 
The time calendar in the exhibition of ancient Chinese astronomy achievements of Beijing Ancient Observatory mainly introduces the formation and development process of the Chinese time calendar and the main research results. In ancient China, there were 102 kinds of calendars, most of which were yin-yang calendars, ranging from the six calendars to the constitutional calendars of the Qing Dynasty. There are only two pure solar calendars, which have undergone five major calendar reforms. The exhibition uses words and pictures to introduce the calendar of different dynasties in China. At the same time, some time measuring tools used in ancient China, such as sundials and guibiao, are displayed. At the same time, there are several original astronomical pendulum clocks moved from Shanghai Xujiahui Observatory and Nanjing Zijinshan observatory.

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